Reading Passage 1
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13 which are based on Reading Passage 1 below.
With an abundance of sugar, spice and plenty of the other, Rosemary Barron
discovers that medieval Torun is well versed in taking the biscuit.
Founded by German knights, divided by Catholics and Protestants and captured by Swedes and Prussians: it’s fair to say Torun, in northern Poland, has a turbulent history. But this long, dark past is overshadowed by something rather sweet – pierniki (gingerbread). The city is renowned for the deeply aromatic biscuit that’s been made here since the 14th century. And appropriately for a place steeped in such history and intrigue, its origin depends on who is telling the story. Some say an apprentice baker made a beautifully shaped cookie as a declaration of love for his master’s daughter, Catherine, while others believe it was created in a panic from ingredients to hand in order to impress an unexpected visiting dignitary. One thing, however, is certain: pierniki Torunskie have been praised by everyone from Chopin and Napoleon to Pope John Paul II.
While gingerbread’s English name is derived from its distinctive flavour, its Polish name means ‘hot and spicy’ due to the large amount of pepper traditionally used in its spice mixture. The quantities of the other spices – cinnamon, cloves, dried ginger, nutmeg, cardamom, aniseed, allspice and dried coriander – depend on the cook, and today’s commercial pierniki-makers keep theirs a closely guarded secret. Over the centuries, recipes for gingerbread – made as a loaf-type cake or into cookies – have varied. The oldest known recipe from 1725 in the Compendium Medicum Auctum book is rich with honey (‘take comb honey, use as much as you want’) and flavoured with lemon peel as well as the classic spices. Later, 19th-century recipes sometimes included turmeric, mace, orange peel or almonds.
The fertile River Vistula valley is perfectly suited to growing rye and wheat for flour, and the surrounding forests provided honey and firewood for bakers’ ovens. Today, each cook has their own way of making gingerbread, although few take the six weeks that was once required or use a carved wooden trough for making the dough. Many still include one or more of the techniques that has produced such an iconic taste: spices are carefully measured and ground and thick; rich honey is expertly sourced.
Those captivating gingerbread flavours can be found in Torun’s restaurants. In the light and friendly dining room of Szeroka No.9, owner Malgorzata Pucko’s menu recreates her love of well-prepared food. ‘I want everyone to taste the fine flavours that we have here,’ she explains as we enjoy herrings in cream sauce, flavoursome pork chop with roasted black pudding, and gingerbread covered with plum sauce.
A few minutes’ walk away, on the terrace of Hotel Bulwar, a 19th-century building that once housed the Prussian army and later Poland’s first naval academy, restaurant director Anna Urbanska tells me: ‘We have some very good food here, including a special goose – plump, white and noisy – that is celebrated with its own festival each November.’
Torun’s daily produce market, close to the administrative offices of Pomerania and Kuyava (the name of this region), is clean, local and a good place to learn a few words of Polish.
Anna takes me past stalls heaped with fresh and dried herbs and others selling honey, groats, nuts and dried beans and fruits. Vegetables are earthy and appetising: bunches of soil-coated carrots and beetroots with leaves (young leaves are used in soup), knobbly parsley, turnips, kohlrabi, cabbages, piles of bunched radishes and the season’s first white asparagus. ‘I buy my carrots here as the juice I make from them tastes fresh for several days, unlike shopbought juice which deteriorates within hours. And if I run out of my own tomato juice, this is where I buy it,’ she says, pointing to a nearby stall selling bottles of organic juice.
A short walk from the castle, baker Jaroslaw Grochowalski starts work behind his small shop, Piekarnia, at 10pm each day. He lifts the heavy lid of a deep chest and breaks off a piece of starter dough. ‘It’s somewhere between 40 to 60 years old,’ he tells me. ‘Pull it apart and breathe in deeply – it’s very good if you have a cold.’ He then adds the dough to carefully measured flour in a large vat and leaves it for 36-48 hours to grow. At baking time, Grochowalski puts the loaves into a low, humid oven then transfers them to a hotter one to create a good crust and texture. ‘These loaves last for days but I don’t know exactly how long as everyone eats them before I can find out,’ he says.
On the day I visit Agnieszka Michalowska’s cookery school, Studio A Culinary Academy, instructor Joanna Tosik has picked a bunch of young stinging nettles to make soup and sourced some elderflower vinegar from a nearby producer. As she sifts flour and spices into thick local honey and stirs raisins, walnuts, hazelnuts, butter, eggs and an untraditional but very effective shot of vodka into the gingerbread mixture to make a modern rendition of this old-world delight, I marvel at the foods and flavours that are still alive in this medieval city and no doubt will be for centuries to come.
Adapted from Food and Travel UK magazine, October 2016
Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.
Write the correct letter in boxes 1-5 on your answer sheet
1 The writer mentions Catherine because
A she used pierniki as a declaration of her admiration.
B she was part of the legend about the origin of pierniki.
C she was the first to bake the cookies in Torun in the 14th century.
D she was involved in intrigues around the production of biscuits.
2 What does the passage say about today’s gingerbread recipe in Torun?
A Honey is no longer used as an ingredient.
B It is only cooked in the form of cookies.
C There is no standard recipe because every baker has his own one.
D There is a set number of spices that are used in the recipe.
3 Which Torun market produce mentioned in the passage is used in cooking soups?
A Dried herbs
B Soil-coated carrots
C Organic juice
D Beetroot leaves
4 Why cannot Jaroslaw Grochowalski say exactly how long the loaves he bakes can last?
A It depends on how humid the oven is.
B People usually eat the bread much sooner than it starts deteriorating.
C It depends on how good the crust and texture of a loaf is.
D The dough grows from 36 to 48 hours.
5 What does the writer regard as an unusual ingredient of Torun’s gingerbread cooked in the Culinary
A Old-world delight
B Elderflower vinegar
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1?
In boxes 6-9 on your answer sheet, write
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this
6 The combination of the spices used by Torun’s commercial gingerbread makers can easily be learned.
7 One can learn some Polish at a local market.
8 Organic carrot juice deteriorates within a few hours.
9 The proportions of flour, honey and spices used for pierniki are equal.
Complete the sentences below.
Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 10-13 on your answer sheet.
10 Malgorzata Pucko especially recommends local herrings, pork chop, and gingerbread covered with …………… .
11 Anna Urbanska talks about the famous local goose, for which there is a festival held …………… .
12 Jaroslaw Grochowalski bakes his bread in two ovens: …………… .
13 The writer is amazed by …………… that are still present in the medieval city of Torun.
Reading Passage 2
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14-27 which are based on Reading Passage 2 below.
Reading Passage 2 has 10 paragraphs, A-J.
Choose the correct headings for paragraphs B-J from the list of headings below.
Write the correct numbers, i-iv or vi-xiii, in boxes 14-22 on your answer sheet.
List of Headings
i Biggest flow of immigrants
ii Sending cash to native countries
iii Where migrants go
iv Two very different countries in one continent
v Immigrant does not necessarily mean poor
vi Fleeing from war and in search of higher salaries
vii Huge numbers of immigrants in Gulf countries
viii Country put in danger
ix The poor cannot afford long-distance migration
x Changing migration scenarios
xi Better economic situation in Burkina Faso
xii Migration to a country nearby
xiii Rich immigrants
Example: Paragraph A — Answer: v
14. Paragraph B
15. Paragraph C
16. Paragraph D
17. Paragraph E
18. Paragraph F
19. Paragraph G
20. Paragraph H
21. Paragraph I
22. Paragraph J
The Beautiful South
Truly poor people rarely migrate to rich countries. Instead theygo to other poor countries—in huge numbers
In most ways, it is a typical immigrant success story. Ouesseni Kaboreq was once a butcher in Burkina Faso, a poor, landlocked west African country. Encouraged by an uncle who was flourishing abroad, he left his country in search of better- paying work. He has done so well that he now employs 41 people. All but two are immigrants like him. The natives cannot bear to get their hands dirty, he says.
But Mr Kaboreq did not migrate to Paris or New Jersey. Instead he crossed just one land border, into neighbouring Ivory Coast. He works in the large meat market in Port Bouet, on the outskirts of Abidjan, near a store that demonstrates its classiness with a picture of Barack Obama on the awning. Mr Kaboreq is not the kind of immigrant whom economists obsess over, but his kind is already extremely common, and is set to become more so.
International migration can be divided into four types. The most important is the familiar one, from developing countries to developed ones. About 120m people alive today have made such a move, calculates the McKinsey Global Institute, an arm of the consultancy—from Mexican grapepickers in California to Senegalese street vendors in France. But the second-largest flow is between developing countries. Between 2000 and 2015 Asia, including the Middle East, added more immigrants than Europe or North America.
Some are war refugees, like the Syrians who live in Jordan and the Somalis in Ethiopia and Kenya. But many developing world migrants are like Mr Kaboreq: people who leave a poor country for a somewhat less poor neighbouring one in search of higher wages. The World Bank estimates that 1.5m migrants from Burkina Faso alone live in Ivory Coast. Relative to Ivory Coast’s population of 23m, Burkinabe immigrants are more numerous than Indians in Britain, Turks in Germany or Mexicans in America.
Ivory Coast is still very poor—about as poor as Bangladesh. It is, however, better off than Burkina Faso. Batien Mamadou, a farm labourer who works 120km northwest of Abidjan, says wages are at least twice as high. And Ivory Coast is a much better place to start a business. The contrast between the two countries is like the difference between a grand African home and the White House, says Bernard Bonane, who fled Burkina Faso following a coup in 1987 and now runs a security firm.
Mr Bonane, who lives in a stylish house in a street crawling with guards, says that few of his neighbours are immigrants. That, he thinks, is because most new arrivals send money home rather than splashing out on property. The World Bank estimates that $343m in remittances flowed from Ivory Coast to Burkina Faso in 2015. The exact amount is unknowable, not least because the two countries share a currency, meaning money can easily be moved across the border in ways that officials do not notice. But the importance of these short-range remittances is plain. Ivory Coast is thought to account for fully 87% of all remittances to Burkina Faso.
Rather little of the cash that flows out of the world’s richest countries ends up in the poorest ones. Gulf states such as Dubai and Saudi Arabia take in millions of remittance workers from lowermiddle-income countries such as India, but hardly any from really poor ones such as Chad and Malawi. The world’s poorest people cannot afford to travel to the West or the Gulf. They can, however, hop on buses bound for nearby countries. “The poorer the people, the shorter the distance they want to travel,” says Dilip Ratha of the World Bank.
Widespread though migration is in West Africa, it cannot match the mighty human rivers of Asia. In November India’s home-affairs minister, Kiren Rijiju, declared that about 20m people from Bangladesh were living illegally in India. Sanjeev Tripathi, the former head of India’s Research and Analysis Wing, thinks that an overstatement. His estimate, based on census data, is that more than 15m Bangladeshis are living in India. If either is right, the Bangladesh-to-India migration corridor is the largest in the world.
It is also one of the most fraught. Immigration from Bangladesh not only raises anxieties about national security; it also suggests to those who worry about such things that a predominantly Hindu society is being diluted. In the1980s students in Assam, a state that touches Bangladesh, led a revolt against mass migration and forced the national government to introduce tougher laws. Nationalist politicians still make hay out of the issue.
It is likely that developing-world migration will become even more important. In the 1970s the world looked fairly simple, point out Gordon Hanson and Craig McIntosh, both academics at the University of California, San Diego, in a new working paper. The global south was poor and had lots of children; the global north was rich and had few. People tend to move not just from poorer countries to richer ones but also from countries with high birth rates to those with low ones. The imbalance between North America and Latin America fuelled the northward migration that so distresses some American voters.
Adapted from ‘The Economist USA’, December 24, 2016
Look at the following statements (Questions 23-27) and the list of country pairs below.
Match each statement with the correct country pair, A-E.
Write the correct letter, A-E, in boxes 23-27 on your answer sheet.
23 It is unlikely that people from this country will migrate to the other one
24 People from this country migrate to the other one in order to work in street retail
25 Immigrants from this country go to this country because of a domestic war
26 There is a debate over the number of immigrants from one country in the other
27 One country is more economically successful than the other
List of countries
A Bangladesh and India
B Senegal and France
C Ivory Coast and Burkina Faso
D Somali and Kenya
E Chad and Saudi Arabia
Reading Passage 3
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 28-40 which are based on Reading Passage 3 below.
In Defence of History on TV
Historical television retains tremendous power, potency,
and great potential for educating and entertaining millions
A. Television is in bad shape. Facing competition from video games, social media and online streaming services – all of which seek to overturn its long-established dominance – TV faces the toughest commercial challenges in its history. And those voices that criticise television for being too low-brow, for being, in their view, an entirely unintellectual form of entertainment, have never gone away. Historical television is a frequent target for those critics, who say history on TV (when it is produced at all) is often represented by nothing more than a collection of platitudes read over an emotive soundtrack and embarrassing reconstructions of dubious accuracy.
B. There is some truth to this observation, but I happen to disagree. Historical television still retains tremendous power, tremendous potency, and a truly great potential for educating and entertaining millions of people.
C. Take, for example, Simon Schama’s latest documentary series, Face of Britain, which I think deserves to be recognised as a distinct and genuinely important work of historical scholarship. The way Schama describes the tension between portraitist and sitter – especially with reference to the confrontation between Winston Churchill and Graham Sutherland, who was commissioned by Parliament in 1954 to paint an ill-fated likeness of the wartime leader – is apt and even profound. ‘What would you like, the bulldog or the cherub?’, Churchill is said to have demanded of Sutherland at the beginning of his first sitting. It was an inauspicious start to a dysfunctional relationship, one which saw both participants humiliated and a true artistic treasure destroyed. Schama includes this as a cautionary tale; in the creation of bona fide art, a battle of wills between the painter and the painted can have dire consequences.
D. No survey of history on television would be complete without mentioning A. J. P. Taylor’s televised lectures – here I am particularly referring to The War Lords – and his ability to create fascination from a reasonably austere televisual template. The eminent academic simply stood in front of a camera and spoke for half an hour on a matter of historical importance. This format was initially contrived as an experiment, but it soon proved a winning formula, making Taylor one of the most well known historians of his generation. Taylor’s obvious erudition and skill for communication, coupled with a mastery of the subject matter and the ability to speak without notes, made his TV work unbeatable – and mean that it is still compelling to watch today.
E. Furthermore, it must be noted that TV history does not need to be quite so directly cerebral, so professorial, in every instance. One could point to Kenneth Clark’s landmark series Civilisation in demonstration, which is renowned for its sumptuous use of colour and unapologetic focus on visual splendour in addition to the intellectual heft it undoubtedly contains.
F. All of this ought to inspire optimism. History retains a tremendous appeal, and constant advances in technology mean that the technical frontiers of what can be accomplished – in terms of lighting, sound, and the cultivation of striking visual imagery – are forever expanding. The unconvincing and poorly-acted reconstructions which formerly plagued much of historical television may soon be relegated to the past.
G. It must be said, however, that some caution ought to be observed for the sake of subtlety. The Dark Charisma of Adolf Hitler, a BBC documentary series from 2012, made use of spectacular landscape shots and a powerful, sonorous soundtrack. Sadly, however, all of this effort was somewhat undercut by the extensive use of special effects – most of which were flame-related – to denote the evil of Hitler’s vision for Germany and the world. This viewer appreciates the effort and expense involved, but he wonders if this darkness and malevolence could be expressed with fewer attempts to turn television screens nationwide into an impromptu visualisation of Dante’s Inferno.
H. But the conclusion to draw is largely a very positive one. While some elements of historical television are in poor shape – think for example of the History Channel, which largely broadcasts nothing of the sort – there are still great and exciting and worthwhile programmes out there, if only we took the trouble to find them.
By James Snell
Adapted from http://www.historytoday.com/james-snell/defence-history-tv
Reading Passage 3 has 8 paragraphs, A-H.
Which paragraph contains the following information?
Write the correct letter, A-H, in boxes 28-32 on your answer sheet.
28 too many visuals are harmful for presenting history on TV
29 professionalism and eloquence of a TV host is a perfect formula for a successful TV programme
30 a television channel dedicated to history
31 an example of a television programme about history, which used special effects to be more presentable
32 a crisis modern television is now going through
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 3?
In boxes 33-36 on your answer sheet, write
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this
33 Some critics say that television nowadays lacks intellectual elements in its entertainment form.
34 Winston Churchill invited Graham Sutherland to paint his portrait.
35 BBC filmed a spectacular documentary about Hitler and Dante.
36 Television audience lost interest in history because of poor-quality TV programmes about history.
Complete each sentence with the correct ending, A-F, below.
Write the correct letter, A-F, in boxes 37-40 on your answer sheet.
37 History television critics say that history on TV screens is shown as a
38 In his documentary, Simon Schama showed that the disagreement between a painter and a sitter can
39 Modern technological advancements, if brought to history TV, will lead to
40 Despite the poor quality of some history channels, one can still find
A improvements in the quality of TV programmes about history
B set of trivial and sometimes questionable facts
C TV programmes on history that are worth watching
D more interesting scripts for TV shows
E cause serious negative effects
F expand technical frontiers