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Section 1       Questions 1-14

Read the text below and answer Questions 1-6.

Sustainable School Travel Strategy

Over the last 20 years, the number of children being driven to school in England has doubled. National data suggests that one in five cars on the road at 8.50 am is engaged in the school run. Children are subject to up to 3.9 times more pollution in a car that is standing in traffic than when walking or cycling to school. Reducing cars around schools makes them safer places, and walking and cycling are better for health and the environment. It has been noted by teachers that children engaging in active travel arrive at school more alert and ready to learn.

The County Council has a strong commitment to supporting and promoting sustainable school travel. We collect data annually about how pupils get to school, and our report on the Sustainable School Travel Strategy sets out in detail what we have achieved so far and what we intend to do in the future. Different parts of the County Council are working together to address the actions identified in the strategy, and we are proud that we have been able to reduce the number of cars on the daily school run by an average of 1% in each of the last three years, which is equivalent to taking approximately 175 cars off the road annually, despite an increase in pupil numbers.

All schools have a School Travel Plan, which sets out how the school and the Council can collaborate to help reduce travel to school by car and encourage the use of public transport. Contact your school to find out what they are doing as part of their School Travel Plan to help you get your child to school in a sustainable, safe way.

Questions 1-6

Do the following statements agree with the information given in the reading passage?
In boxes 1-6 on your answer sheet, write

TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this

1. More children are injured when walking or cycling to school than when travelling by car.
2. Children who are driven to school are more ready to learn than those who walk or cycle.
3. Every year the Council gathers information about travel to schools.
4. The Council is disappointed with the small reduction in the number of cars taking children to school.
5. The number of children in schools has risen in recent years.
6. Parents can get help with paying for their children to travel to school by public transport.

Read the text below and answer Questions 7-14.

Flu: the facts

A. Flu (influenza) is an acute viral respiratory infection. It spreads easily from person to person: at home, at school, at work, at the supermarket or on the train.

B. It gets passed on when someone who already has flu coughs or sneezes and is transmitted through the air by droplets, or it can be spread by hands infected by the virus.

C. Symptoms can include fever, chills, headache, muscle pain, extreme fatigue, a dry cough, sore throat and stuffy nose. Most people will recover within a week but flu can cause severe illness or even death in people at high risk. It is estimated that 18,500-24,800 deaths in England and Wales are attributable to influenza infections annually.

D. Vaccination is the most effective way to prevent infection. Although anyone can catch flu, certain people are at greater risk from the implications of flu, as their bodies may not be able to fight the virus. If you are over 65 years old, or suffer from asthma, diabetes, or certain other conditions, you are considered at greater risk from flu and the implications can be serious. If you fall into one of these ‘at-risk’ groups, are pregnant or a carer, you are eligible for a free flu vaccination.

E. If you are not eligible for a free flu vaccination, you can still protect yourself and those around you from flu by getting a flu vaccination at a local pharmacy.

F. About seven to ten days after vaccination, your body makes antibodies that help to protect you against any similar viruses that may infect you. This protection lasts about a year.

G. A flu vaccination contains inactivated, killed virus strains so it can’t give you the flu. However, a flu vaccination can take up to two weeks to begin working, so it is possible to catch flu in this period.

H. A flu vaccination is designed to protect you against the most common and potent strains of flu circulating so there is a small chance you could catch a strain of flu not contained in the flu vaccine.

I. The influenza virus is constantly changing and vaccines are developed to predicted strains each year so it is important to get vaccinated against the latest strains.

Speak to your GP or nurse today to book your flu vaccination.



Questions 7-10
The text has nine sections, A-I. Which sections contain the following information?

Write the correct letter, A-I, in boxes 7-14 on your answer sheet.

NB You may use any answer more than once.

7. examples of people who are likely to be particularly badly affected by flu
8. how to get a vaccination if you choose to pay for it
9. why new vaccines become available
10. how long a vaccine remains effective
11. reference to the possibility of catching a different type of flu from the ones in the vaccine
12. categories of people who do not have to pay for vaccination
13. information about what a vaccine consists of
14. signs that you might have flu





Section 2       Questions 15-27

Read the text below and answer Questions 15-21.

The law on minimum pay

Who is entitled to minimum pay?
Nearly all workers aged 16 years and over, including part-time workers, are entitled to the National Minimum Wage. Amongst those to whom it does not apply are those engaged in unpaid work and family members employed by the family business.

What is the minimum wage that I am entitled to?
The National Wage Act specifies the minimum rates of pay applicable nationwide. Since 1 October 2007, the adult rate for workers aged 22 and over has been £5.25 per hour. The development rate for 18-21 year olds and for workers getting training in the first 6 months of a job is £4.60 per hour. The rate for 16-17 year olds starts at £3.40 an hour. There are special provisions for some workers, for example, those whose job includes accommodation. Pay means gross pay and includes any items paid through the payroll such as overtime, bonus payments, commission and tips and gratuities.

I believe I’m being paid below the National Minimum Wage Rate. How can I complain?

If you are being paid less than this, there are various steps you can take:

• If you feel able, you should talk directly with your employer. This is a clear legal right, and employers can be fined for not paying the NMW.
• If you are a trade union member, you should call in the union.
• If neither of these is appropriate then you can email via the Revenue and Customs website or call their helpline for advice.

You have the legal right to inspect your employer’s pay records if you believe, on reasonable grounds, that you are being paid less than the NMW. Your employer is required to produce the records within 14 days, and must make them available at your place of work or at some other reasonable place. If your employer fails to produce the records, you may take the matter to an employment tribunal. You must make your complaint within three months of the ending of the 14-day notice period.


Questions 15-21
Complete the sentences below.

Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER from the text for each answer.

Write your answers in boxes 15-21 on your answer sheet.

15. The law on minimum pay doesn’t cover you if you are working in your …………………… or if you are a volunteer.

16. You may be paid under £5 an hour if you are receiving …………………… at the start of a job.

17. There are different rules for people who are provided with …………………… with their jobs.

18. If you earn extra money, for example, for working longer hours or in tips, this counts as part of your wage when you receive it via …………………… .

19. Anyone being paid below the National Minimum Wage should speak to their …………………… if they can.

20. According to the law, you can ask to look at your boss’s …………………… .

21. You have a period of …………………… to complain if your boss does not co-operate within the specified period of time.



Read the text below and answer Questions 22-27.


Email has completely changed the way we work today. It offers many benefits and, if used well, can be an excellent tool for improving your own efficiency. Managed badly, though, email can be a waste of valuable time. Statistics indicate that office workers need to wade through an average of more than 30 emails a day. Despite your best efforts, unsolicited email or spam can clutter up the most organised inbox and infect your computer system with viruses. Here we give you guidance on protecting yourself.

Prioritising incoming messages
If you are regularly faced with a large volume of incoming messages, you need to prioritise your inbox to identify which emails are really important. If it is obvious spam, it can be deleted without reading. Then follow these steps for each email:

• Check who the email is from. Were you expecting or hoping to hear from the sender? How quickly do they expect you to respond?
• Check what the email is about. Is the subject urgent? Is it about an issue that falls within your sphere of responsibility, or should it just be forwarded to someone else?
• Has the email been in your inbox for long? Check the message time.

An initial scan like this can help you identify the emails that require your prompt attention. The others can be kept for reading at a more convenient time.

Replying in stages
Having prioritised your emails, you can answer them in stages, first with a brief acknowledgement and then a more detailed follow-up. This is particularly advisable when dealing with complicated matters where you don’t want to give a rushed answer. If you decide to do this, tell the recipient a definite date when you’ll be able to get back to him or her and try to keep to this wherever possible.

Some emails are uncomplicated and only require a brief, one line answer, so it’s a good idea to reply to these immediately. For example, if all you need to say is, ‘Yes, I can make the 10.00 meeting’, or ‘Thanks, that’s just the information I needed’, do it. If you are unable to reply there and then or choose not to, let the sender know that you’ve received the message and will be in touch as soon as possible.


Questions 22-27
Complete the flowchart below.

Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the text for each answer.

Write your answers in boxes 22-27 on your answer sheet.


Section 3       Questions 28-40

Read the text below and answer Questions 28-40.

The Wonder of Diamonds!

A. Diamonds are not only one of the most precious natural materials in the world; they are also among the hardest. For centuries diamonds have been renowned the world over as a natural material with matchless physical attributes of superior abrasiveness and lustre.

B. It is believed that the Greek word ‘adamas’, meaning ‘unbeatable’, transformed linguistically over time to the English version it is now known as diamond. Apparently, the ancient Greeks used the highly treasured adamas as a religious icon. Prior to ancient Greece, diamonds were widely used as engraving tools to cut grooves into concrete surfaces. The popularity of diamonds among the masses started to increase at the beginning of the 19th century when their supply increased significantly. The cutting and polishing of diamonds were also improved upon at the time making them even more attractive for the masses. The rise of the world economy and, at the same time, persuasive advertising campaigns, combined to elevate diamonds to the status they have today. Today, about 130 million carats (around 26,000 kilograms) of diamonds are mined yearly fetching a combined value of some 9 billion USD.

C. The central and southern regions of Africa combine to provide almost 50 percent of the world’s total diamond production. Significant sources of diamonds have also been discovered in both Brazil and Australia. Irrespective of where diamond mines are discovered, in reality, there are very few specialised diamond mining companies who do the actual mining. The main reason for this is because they must be given permission from respective governments to undertake the large-scale digging required — a very complex, bureaucratic process.

D. Diamonds are mined through very sophisticated and complex processes. Diamond crystals are formed by high pressure and temperature deep within the earth. In time, volcanic ‘pipes’ called ‘kimberlite’ and ‘lamproite’ rock transport the diamonds to the earth’s surface. These rocks are composed of minerals such as olivine, phlogopite, pyroxene and garnet and a variety of other naturally occurring minerals, including diamonds. Experienced diamond miners know that when they discover kimberlite’ and ‘lamproite’ in the earth’s crust, there may very well be a rich source of diamonds not far away.

E. Considering they are located almost 150kms below the earth, it is a modern engineering marvel how diamond-containing rocks are brought to the surface. Artificial volcanic forces are created beneath the area where diamonds lie via man-made pipes. These forces push the rocks upward in the same way a volcano erupts and ejects lava. The only difference, of course, is the force in the volcano occurs naturally whereas the forces generated in diamond mining are artificial. As the diamond is pushed toward the earth’s surface, a separation process occurs. The technology used for the separation process is different from that of the extraction process – the former process requires man-made forces to move any and all rocks to the surface, while the latter focuses only on locating diamond-containing rock once it reaches the surface. Testing is conducted on the first few batches of rocks mined to determine whether the mine will be economically viable or not. Whether or not the mining will continue on a larger scale depends on the ratio of diamond-containing rocks to ordinary rocks that are mined. The more worthless rocks that are found in the test mining, the less economically viable the mine is for a larger-scale operation.

F. From the deepest regions under the earth to the point where the diamonds finally reach the hands of the miners, the 4 C’s come to the fore. The 4 C’s are the four standards by which all diamonds are measured and judged. The first C stands for Carat. This refers to the unit of weight by which a diamond is measured. One carat equals exactly 200 milligrams. The value of a diamond increases mainly in relation to carat weight and so, the other 3 C’s play a lesser role in determining the price of a diamond. Cut is the second determinant. As the term suggests, this is all about the art of transforming a rough diamond into a sparkling centerpiece. It requires significant technical knowledge, artistry and experience to cut a diamond. The dimensions and angles of a diamond depend on how it is cut. The next C is colour. The colour of a diamond can change significantly depending upon the chemical combinations and structural formations of other minerals nearby as it is forming. The influence of neighbouring minerals can result in a diamond ranging in colour from completely transparent, to bluish, and a host of colours in between. The final C is clarity, which is a measure of a diamond’s internal inclusions*. These naturally occurring inclusions determine the transparency of the diamond and according to how many there are, an inclusion rating is given. In addition to the 4Cs, fluorescence in a diamond is also considered. Fluorescence refers to the ability of a diamond to absorb invisible light and emit visible light.

G. Although diamonds are extremely important for industrialists and a sure symbol of love between a husband and wife when joined in marriage, many environmental activists protest diamond mining. For this reason, mining companies are often under pressure to minimise the negative effects of their mining activities. In fact, a large number of mining companies nowadays regularly publish their process details in order to demonstrate that they conduct their mining business in a socially and environmentally responsible way.

*a naturally occurring imperfection (spot, cloud or fracture) in a diamond.



Questions 28-35
The passage has seven sections, A-G.

Which section contains the following information?

Write the correct letter, A-G, in boxes 28-35 on your answer sheet.

NB You may use any letter more than once.

28. the different areas in the world where diamonds are found
29. diamond mining and good corporate citizenship
30. the features of a diamond that determine the value
31. a primary reason for the early increase in diamond popularity
32. the creativity involved in beautifying diamonds
33. a formula for deciding whether or not diamond mining should continue
34. different minerals that exist with diamonds
35. the organisations from whom companies receive permission to mine



Questions 36-40

Do the following statements agree with the information given in the reading passage?
In boxes 36-40 on your answer sheet, write

TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this

36. Diamonds were first used for religious purposes.
37. Bringing diamonds up from deep underground is quite a simple process.
38. Diamond mining areas are decreasing in number.
39. The colour of a diamond is determined by minerals close by.
40. The 4 C’s are the only measures used to determine diamond value.



Ответы к этим текстам :

Reading Test 3 (General Training) Answer Key

Section 1

7. D
8. E
9. I
10. F
11. H
12. D
13. G
14. C

Section 2

15. family business
16. training
17. accommodation
18. payroll// the payroll
19. employer// employers
20. pay records
21. 3 months // three months
22. spam // obvious spam
23. message time
24. prompt attention
25. reply immediately
26. brief acknowledgement
27. date // definite date

Section 3

28. C
29. G
30. F
31. B
32. F
33. E
34. D
35. C
39. TRUE



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